Monday, February 3, 2014
The Anthropology of Addiction
Can we ever integrate neuroscience and social science?
The last in a series of posts about a recent conference, Neuroplasticity in Substance Addiction and Recovery: From Genes to Culture and Back Again. The conference, held at the Center for Interdisciplinary Research (ZiF) at Bielefeld University, drew neuroscientists, historians, psychologists, philosophers, and even a freelance science journalist or two, coming in from Germany, the U.S., The Netherlands, the UK, Finland, France, Italy, Australia, and elsewhere. The organizing idea was to focus on how changes in the brain impact addiction and recovery, and what that says about the interaction of genes and culture. The conference co-organizers were Jason Clark and Saskia Nagel of the Institute of Cognitive Science at the University of Osnabrück, Germany. Part One is here. Part Two is here. Part Three is here.
The disciplines of psychiatry and neurology are being brought intellectually closer to each other. One can foresee the day in the not-too-distance future when resident physicians in both disciplines will share a common year of training, comparable to the year of residency training in internal medicine for physicians who go on to specialize in widely different areas.
— Eric Kandel, In Search of Memory
Anthropology is arguably a perfect discipline within which to connect the two often-conflicting facets of addiction—its fundamental neuroarchitecture, and the socioenvironmental influences that shape this basic biological endowment. In The Encultured Brain, published by MIT Press, co-editors Daniel H. Lende and Greg Downey make an articulate call for a merger of interests, in an attempt to combine laboratory research with anthropological fieldwork. The term “neuroanthropology,” meant to denote this combination of anthropology and brain science, was evidently coined by Stephen Jay Gould. A number of thinkers have dipped into this arena over the years, including Melvin Konner, Sarah Hrdy, Norman Cousins, Robert Sapolsky, and Antonio Damasio. The term gained a more solid foothold when Lende and Downey began their Neuroanthropology blog, now at PLOS blogs.
The term has the advantage of meaning exactly what it says: an integrative approach to the complicated matter of how our genetic endowment is influenced by our cultural endowment. Or vice versa, if you prefer. Here, from the introductory chapter, is the short definition of neuroanthropology: “Forms of enculturation, social norms, training regimens, ritual, language, and patterns of experience shape how our brains work and are structured…. Without material change in the brain, learning, memory, maturation, and even trauma could not happen…. Through systematic change in the nervous system, the human body learns to orchestrate itself. Cultural concepts and meanings become neurological anatomy.” From the point of view of actual study, there is no choice but to join these two when possible—a task make more difficult by the rampant “biophilia” found among anthropologists and sociologists, as well as the countering notion among biologists that anthropology does not make the cut as a “real” science.
Co-author Daniel Lende, an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of South Florida, was one of the presenters at the Bielenfeld conference. Lende did his Ph.D. work on adolescent substance abuse in Bogota, Colombia, and told the group that years of research “showed me that addiction is profoundly neuranthropological.” Lende told the audience that the “combination of neuroscience and ethnography revealed that addiction is a problem of involvement, not just of pleasure or of self.”
This approach calls for applying a critical eye to strictly brain-based explanations that ignore both environmental influence and biochemical individuality. And it opens up the possibility that anthropologists may be incorporating neuroimaging technology into their working tool kit. While the neuroanthropology movement has been mostly a product of the anthropology side thus far, Lende said. But increasingly, cognitive scientists are joining in.
“As neuroanthropologists, we’re not trying to solve problems in the lab or in the clinic, but rather to take the results of that sort of work, and look at what’s happening to those brains in the wild,” Lende said.
Repeated patterning comes from social environments, he said. “We have to deal with how cultural practices and developmental experiences can shape and mold the brain, and how that has an effect on the production of human variation, not just sets of beliefs you can take on and put off.” The cultural practice of skull shaping, for example, is “impossible to understand without taking into account both the cultural practices that drive it, and the early plasticity in bone formation that allows it biologically.”
Culture, said Dr. Lende, “can bring different elements into one package. It doesn’t have to be the biology side that does all the work. You can take the cultural strands and knit them into something really unusual that you wouldn’t necessarily see in the world. With cultural tools, we are using are brain in ways not necessarily built into it from the start.”
But attending to all of this requires thinking of neural plasticity in novel ways, Lende said. “Hardwiring isn’t quite as hard as we once thought. The lifespan of these circuits set early in life isn’t what we thought.” The brain can use sensory input in ways we don’t yet understand. Lende pointed to “significant recovery from stroke, which was not viewed as possible a couple of decades ago.”
“You have to be critical both of the neuroscience and some of its limitations, and also the anthropologists, who are sometimes saying, ‘it’s got to be all sociocultural.’ That’s not always a good explanation for something as complex as addiction.”
Lende believes that anthropology needs to pursue the impact of “biological embedding, or how experiences get under the skin” to alter human biological and developmental processes. “You can have differential vulnerabilities to biological embedding, coupled with differential environmental vulnerability.”
Dr. Lende points to the well documented clinical finding that exercise enhances neuroplasticity. “And exercising has been shown in various labs to reduce craving,” he said. “What’s important from my community-based orientation is, what sort of interventions or strategies can we have that are low cost and be used in non-professional settings. Can we motivate people to do it? What are the barriers?”
Subjective experience is hard to get at, but that’s a problem anthropologists think about all the time. “I asked the kids in Columbia, if your drug use were a place, Lende said, “ then what sort of place would that be? Kids who’d never tried drugs didn’t get the question, but a kid with heavy cigarette use who had just quit, and who had recovered recently from using too much cocaine and crack, looked at his fingers, referring to cigarettes, and said, ‘a world in there? No. But with cocaine, yes.”